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Nanoparticle Synthesis

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Nanoparticle Synthesis

Based on the definition endorsed by the Commission of the European Union in 2011, a nano-object with any of its dimension in the range of 1-100nm belongs to nanoparticle. Due to a relatively larger surface area to the volume ratio, the nanoparticles exhibit unique physical, chemical and biological properties Compared to larger particles, nanoparticles possess greater surface area to volume ration, which has granted them unique physical, chemical and biological properties: increased reactivity or stability in a chemical or biological reaction, enhanced mechanical strength, etc. The nanoparticles are of different dimensions, shapes, sizes and materials. It can be 0D (zero dimensional), 1D, 2D and 3D, with a shape of sphere, cylinder, tubule, cone, hollow core, spiral, flat, etc. The size range of nanoparticles is usually 1 nm and 100 nm.

In the past decade, numerous synthetic methods and strategies have been developed in the hope of achieving increased efficiency and substantial cost savings. Some are focused on the assembly of structurally diverse nanoparticles, while others aim to introduce novel optical, mechanical, physical and chemical properties. The synthesis strategies can be generally classified as “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches.

Representation of the top-down and bottom up synthesis process of metal nanoparticles (MNPs).

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